The latest 60 year report of China from poverty to

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The 60 year report of new China: the leap from poverty to a modern industrial system

with the progress of the Republic and the spring breeze of reform and opening up, new China's industry has gone through an extraordinary 60 years. Over the past 60 years, new China has established an independent, relatively complete, large-scale and high-tech modern industrial system on the basis of almost poverty, achieved a historic leap from the initial stage of industrialization to the primary stage of industrialization and then to the mid-term stage of industrialization, and promoted China's development from a country with extreme material shortage and industries waiting for prosperity to become the engine of world economic development and the global manufacturing base. New China's industry has made outstanding contributions to the prosperity of China's economy, the prosperity and well-being of the people, and the development of the world economy

the stormy course of industry in 60 years

in old China 60 years ago, industry was extremely backward. Not only the output of products is low, but also the industrial sector is incomplete. There are only mining, textile and simple processing industries. Many industrial products cannot be produced by themselves and are completely dependent on imports. After the founding of new China, the party and government concentrated limited resources and focused on the industrial sector. The commencement of a large number of industrial projects opened the prelude to China's industrialization. Since then, new China's industry has moved forward at an unprecedented speed. According to the historical sequence and characteristics, the industry of new China can be roughly divided into four stages:

the first stage is from 1949 to 1957, the national economic recovery and the "first five year plan" period. This period was a period of relatively rapid economic development in Chinese history. On the one hand, it took only three years to miraculously recover the national economy from the ruins of war, and industrial production grew rapidly. In, the total industrial output value increased from 14 billion yuan to 34.3 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 1.45 times, with an average annual increase of 34.8%. At the same time, during the whole "first five year plan" period, China's industrial production has made great achievements. The most prominent sign is that new China has received financial, technical and equipment assistance from the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries, and has built nearly 1000 industrial projects with "156 projects" as the core. Driven by these backbone projects, industry has been rapidly established. During the first five year plan period, China's industrial added value increased by 19.8% and agriculture by 3.8% annually. Industrial production grew significantly faster than agriculture. In the total output value of industry and agriculture, the proportion of industry increased from 43.1% in 1952 to 56.7% in 1957, an increase of 13.6 percentage points. The completion and operation of these projects have established a series of new industrial departments, formed an unprecedented prototype of an independent industrial system in China, and laid a preliminary foundation for socialist industrialization

the second stage was from 1958 to 1965, the period of "great leap forward" and national economic adjustment. Due to the recovery of the national economy after the founding of the people's Republic of China and the successful completion of the first five-year plan, subjectivism and eagerness for success spread and grew. There was a "left" tendency in the guiding ideology, and the slogans of "taking steel as the key link" and "catching up with the United States" were put forward, resulting in a serious imbalance of major proportions and the difficulty of sustainable development of industrial production. From 1958 to 1960, the industrial added value increased by 1.1 times in three years, and then decreased significantly. In 1961, it decreased by 39% compared with 1960, and in 1962, it decreased by 13.3% compared with 1961. From 1958 to 1962, the average annual growth rate was only 2.7%. In 1961, China was forced to implement the eight character policy of "adjustment, consolidation, enrichment and improvement", and carried out a three-year comprehensive management of the national economic development, which has been better restored. The industrial growth rate has accelerated significantly, with an average annual growth rate of 21.4% in industrial added value between, 18.7 percentage points higher than that during the "Five Year Plan" period

the third stage was from 1966 to 1978, a period of great ups and downs of industrial economy. During the ten-year turbulent period of the cultural revolution, the industrial economy experienced great ups and downs. In 1967, the national industrial added value decreased by 15.1% over the previous year; In 1968, it was 8.2% lower than that in 1967; The growth rate was more than 30% in 1969 and 1970, and fell by 3.1% in 1976. In 1976, the "Gang of four" was smashed, ending a decade of civil strife, and a turnaround occurred in Chinese history. However, due to the mistakes of the party's guiding ideology, the national economy has not been fully on track in the two years from October 1976 to the Third Plenary Session of the eleventh CPC Central Committee

in the first 28 years of the founding of new China, despite the serious interference of ten years of turmoil and heavy losses in industrial construction and economic development, the industrial economy has made certain achievements with the joint efforts of some older generation revolutionaries and the people of the whole country. China has successfully constructed a relatively independent and complete industrial system on almost a piece of ruins. The industrialization process has entered the primary stage of industrialization from the initial stage, laying a certain foundation for the great development of the next 30 years

the fourth stage is that since the reform and opening up in 1978, the industrial economy has entered a take-off period. In December, 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was held, which opened a new era of reform and opening up. Since then, the industrial economy has been plugged into the wings of the basic functions of the gantry terminal tensile testing machine. The industrial economy has achieved unprecedented development. In 2008, the total industrial added value reached 12911.2 billion yuan, an increase of 25.4 times over 1978 (calculated at comparable prices), with an average annual growth of 11.5%; In 2007, industrial enterprises above Designated Size (industrial enterprises with annual main business income of more than 5million yuan, the same below) achieved profits of 2715.5 billion yuan and the original value of fixed assets of 19873.9 billion yuan, 45 times and 57 times that of 1978 respectively. The status of a major manufacturing country has been preliminarily established. In 2007, China ranked second with Japan in the global manufacturing ranking (according to the statistics of the U.S. economic consulting company). Industrial production capacity has increased significantly. China has formed a huge production capacity in major industrial fields such as energy, metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials, anti-skid treatment equipment for the appearance of mechanical steel pulling plates, electronic communication equipment manufacturing, transportation equipment manufacturing and various consumer goods. An independent industrial system with a certain level of technology and a relatively complete range of categories has been established. The leading position of industry has been significantly enhanced, and a historic leap from the primary stage of industrialization to the intermediate stage of industrialization has been achieved

60 years of brilliant industry

after 60 years of hard work, new China's industry has made brilliant achievements that have attracted the attention of the world

first, the industrial strength has increased unprecedentedly, and the industrialization process has been accelerating

-- the total scale of industry has been growing. For 60 years, industrial production has basically driven on the fast track. The industrial added value increased from 11.98 billion yuan in 1952 to 12911.2 billion yuan in 2008, an increase of 446 times after deducting price factors, with an average annual increase of 11.5%; The total profits of industrial enterprises increased from 2.83 billion yuan in 1952 to 2715.5 billion yuan in 2007, an increase of 959 times. It is estimated that the industrial added value created in one day in 2008 is twice as much as that in 1952; The total profit realized in one day in 2007 was 1.6 times more than the total profit realized in 1952. The original value of fixed assets in 2007 increased 1333 times from 14.9 billion yuan in 1952

-- the leading position of industry has been significantly strengthened. In 2008, the industrial added value accounted for 42.9% of GDP, an increase of 25.3 percentage points from 17.6% in 1952. Manufacturing products are the main body of export commodities, which have exchanged a large amount of foreign exchange for the country; Nearly half of China's fiscal revenue comes from industry; In 2008, the number of employees in industrial enterprises with annual main business income of more than 5million yuan reached 81million, which solved the employment problem of a large number of urban population and rural surplus labor force, and greatly alleviated the heavy employment pressure in China

-- rapid expansion of industrial production capacity. The crude steel production capacity increased from 6.48 million tons in 1957 to 57.45 million tons in 2007, an increase of 87 times; The cement production capacity increased from 7.81 million tons in 1957 to 1.834 billion tons in 2007, an increase of 234 times; The production capacity of chemical fertilizer increased from 200000 tons in 1957 to 82.3 million tons in 2007, an increase of 411 times; Chemical fiber increased from 0300 tons in 1957 to 30.42 million tons in 2007; Washing machines increased from 607000 in 1980 to 51.19 million in 2007. The growth of industrial supply capacity has fundamentally changed the shortage of industrial products that has plagued China's economic life for a long time, and the market supply has changed from depression and scarcity to prosperity and abundance

-- the output of major industrial products ranks first in the world. In 2008, compared with 1949, the steel, raw coal and power generation increased from 158000 tons, 32 million tons and 4.3 billion kwh to 500.92 million tons, 2.793 billion tons and 3466.9 billion kwh respectively, an increase of 3169 times, 86 times and 805 times respectively. The number of cars increased from 0100 in 1955 to 9.35 million in 2008. The output of a large number of emerging electronic products such as color TV sets, refrigerators, air conditioners, microcomputers and so on also showed a trend of rapid expansion. The number of color TV sets increased from about 0200 in 1971 to 90.33 million in 2008; Refrigerators increased from about 16000 in 1957 to 47.57 million in 2008; Room air conditioners increased from 0200 in 1978 to 82.31 million in 2008; Microcomputer increased from 42100 in 1986 to 137million in 2008; From 52.48 million in 2000 to 560 million in 2008

according to the data of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, according to the international standard industrial classification, China's manufacturing industry now ranks first among the 22 major categories in the world, and 15 major categories rank top three. In 2007, the output of 172 categories of products in China's manufacturing industry ranked first in the world. Nearly half of the world's cement, flat glass and building ceramics, and about half of the world's, PC machines, color TVs, monitors, SPC exchanges and digital cameras were produced in China. China has become a veritable industrial production country

-- the export competitiveness of industrial products is enhanced. At present, home appliances, leather, furniture, bicycles, hardware products, batteries, down and other industries have become China's industries with comparative advantages in the world and certain international competitiveness. Light industrial products have been exported to more than 200 countries and regions in the world, accounting for a huge proportion of world trade volume, and have made great contributions to the enjoyment of high-quality and low-cost consumer goods by people all over the world. From the perspective of export commodity structure, China's export commodity structure has been continuously optimized and upgraded. In 1978, the proportion of exports of primary products was slightly higher than that of manufactured goods. Today, the proportion of primary products has fallen to single digits, and the proportion of industrial manufactured products has risen to more than 90%. In the export of manufactured goods, mechanical and electrical products account for more than half of the total export. High tech products account for more than a quarter of total exports. Electromechanical and high-tech products have become increasingly dominant in China's export trade

second, the industrial structure has been continuously adjusted and optimized

-- an industrial system with relatively complete industries has been established. At the beginning of the founding of the people's Republic, the industrial sector was better than nothing. After 60 years of construction, fundamental changes have taken place in the industrial industry. Steel, non-ferrous metals, electric power, coal, petroleum processing, chemical industry, machinery, building materials, light textile, food, medicine and other industrial sectors have gradually developed and expanded, and some emerging industrial sectors such as aerospace industry, automobile industry, electronics industry have also developed rapidly from scratch. At present, China has 39 industrial categories, 191 medium categories and 525 sub categories, all of which are listed in the United Nations Industrial Classification. An industrial system with relatively complete industries has been formed

-- the structure of light and heavy industries has been gradually improved in repeated adjustments. The adjustment of light and heavy industries is generally divided into three stages. First, from the early days of the founding of the people's Republic of China to 1978, the characteristics of heavy industrialization were very obvious. To change heavy industry

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