Optimal design of reverse logistics network for th

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With the continuous development of the modernization of human society, consumers' demand for products and services shows the characteristics of diversification and personalization, which leads to the shortening of the life cycle of products and the acceleration of renewal, resulting in a large number of waste products. At the same time, driven by the awareness of sustainable development and environmental protection, all sectors of society are increasingly concerned about the recycling and reuse of waste materials. Therefore, the new field of reverse logistics (reverse

Logistics), which is opposite to the traditional one-way operation mode, came into being to achieve the purposes of resource regeneration, material value-added and cost saving

in recent years, foreign scholars have done a lot of research on reverse logistics, such as distribution problems in reverse logistics, regional allocation model, MILP quantitative model proposed by Kooi in 1996, which belongs to labor-intensive industries, etc. However, China has done less work in this area, and the research is still in the primary stage, especially in the reverse logistics of transportation packaging containers. Therefore, based on the previous research results, this paper focuses on the recycling of transportation packaging containers, establishes the network process of reverse logistics, and optimizes the design

2 the meaning, characteristics and research value of reverse logistics

2.1 the meaning of reverse logistics

as a new trend, reverse logistics has been reflected in the latest definition of logistics by the American Logistics Association (CLM) in 1998, "Logistics is a part of the supply chain process. It is a process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient and efficient forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information from the place of origin to the place of consumption as long as the measuring circuit has no shortcomings to meet the needs of customers."  2 

contrary to the traditional forward logistics, reverse logistics refers to the process of moving goods from the end of consumption to the starting point of production or other nodes at a reasonable cost in order to recover resources or correctly dispose of waste goods. As shown in Figure 1:

waste materials targeted by reverse logistics include: product recycling (such as: products and packaging are reused after repair and cleaning), part recycling (assembled products and parts are reused) and material recycling (recycled in an alternative form)

2.2 characteristics of reverse logistics

reverse logistics and forward logistics have something in common in terms of composition and functions, including packaging, loading and unloading, transportation, storage and processing. However, reverse logistics has its own characteristics

(1) dispersion. Waste logistics may arise in the production field, circulation field and consumption field, involving any field, any department and any individual

(2) uncertainty. Due to the randomness of reverse logistics, it is difficult for enterprises to determine the recovery time, location and quantity of products. However, the end point of reverse logistics can be determined

(3) slowness. Waste materials are a process of long-term collection and complex treatment (cleaning, maintenance, processing, allocation and so on). This determines the slowness of reverse logistics process

(4) high processing cost. Due to the uneven recycling products, it is not easy to obtain economies of scale; There are also many labor costs

2.3 research on the value of reverse logistics

from a micro perspective, reverse logistics can improve the added value of products and increase competitive advantage; Reduce material costs and increase enterprise benefits; Improve the ecological environment, reduce the total experimental force n (KGF) of the scale symbol indenter, and mark the allowable measurement range of the hardness symbol, pollution control costs and waste treatment costs; Shaping the social image of enterprises and adding intangible assets to enterprises

from a macro perspective, reverse logistics is conducive to the rational flow of social resources, maximize the utilization of resources, improve the social environment, and develop circular economy (i.e. "resources products renewable resources"), which is conducive to the sustainable development of social economy$ Page break $

3 transportation packaging container recycling

the dominant position of transportation in logistics is well known. Therefore, the research on the recycling of transportation packaging appliances that complete the transportation function is not only conducive to the saving of transportation costs, but also plays an important role in the development of reverse logistics

3.1 connotation of transportation packaging containers

transportation packaging containers are designed to meet the needs of transportation, storage, loading and unloading, and have the functions of ensuring the safety of products, facilitating transportation, storage, loading and unloading, accelerating handover, spot inspection, etc. Namely, it has the functions of protection and convenience. Modern transportation packaging containers include packaging bags, boxes, boxes, bottles and cans

transportation packaging container recycling refers to the process of collecting used transportation packaging containers and other auxiliary packaging materials through various channels and ways, and then being repaired, cleaned, transformed and reused by relevant departments

3.2 logistics network of reusable transport packaging containers

from the perspective of saving resources, most of the transport packaging containers currently used are reusable, and with the development of material technology, their service life is longer and the number of cycles increases. According to the process of transportation packaging containers from recycling to reuse in the whole logistics link, draw the logistics network as shown in Figure 2

it can be seen from Figure 2 that the transportation packaging containers are first transferred from the station to the demander (shipper), and the shipper will cause some stress or plastic strain to be concentrated in these centers. After these containers are used, the receiver will return these used empty containers, and finally return to the station for the next recycling after testing, repair, classification and other links, until they cannot be repaired, and enter the stage of material or parts recycling

4 take container transportation as an example to establish a system model

container transportation is a modern advanced transportation mode, which has the advantages of rapidity, safety, simplicity and so on. It has promoted the reform of all links in the process of goods circulation and improved the quality and efficiency of logistics. It is known as the "transportation revolution of the 20th century", and its position is becoming increasingly important. The container has also become a symbol of the modern transportation package set. Therefore, it is very representative to choose container as the research object of transportation packaging container in this paper

4.1 determine the functions of the container reverse logistics system

according to the logistics network of reusable transport packaging containers in Figure 2, combined with various procedures in the process of container handover and all aspects involved in the recycling of empty containers, it is determined that the container reverse logistics system should have six parts of functions as shown in figure 3, namely: collecting empty containers after use, detecting, repairing, cleaning, stacking, and transportation tracking. However, the allocation, handover and suitcase carrying involved in the early distribution in Figure 3 do not belong to the reverse logistics system, so no in-depth study is made

(1) empty rear container for collection. Empty containers scattered all over the country are collected and transported to the disposal site through the shipper, freight forwarder or station. The transportation cost involved in this process is very high, accounting for a considerable proportion in the total cost of reverse logistics

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